Hadhrat Khalīfa Mahmood Nizāmānī Qādrī Naqshbandī (d.1851) was a great Sufi master of Sindh in the early 19th century and the chief deputy of the great saint and founder of Pir Pagara shrine Hadhrat Pīr Sayyid Muhammad Rāshid alias Rozay Dhanī, may Allah be pleased with them both.
He was born circa 1189 AH (1775 CE) at Kario Ganhwar, a village in the Badin district, southern Sindh. He was from the influential Nizamani tribe, a branch of Seraiki Balochs. His father Ganhwar Khan Nizamani was a tribal leader and bureaucrat in the Talpur rule. He was born with the prayers of a saint who named him ‘Mahmood’, an Arabic name, although his elder brothers all had Balochi names. In his childhood and younger age, he was highly attracted towards the Sufi saints and fuqara and used to be in their company. At the age of 22 he did Bay’ah with the great shaykh and Sufi master of Sindh Hazrat Pir Sayyid Muhammad Rāshid, well known as Pīr Rozay Dhanī.
Khalīfā Mahmood received spiritual training and permission from his shaykh Pir Muhammad Rashid (alias Rozay Dhani), who received it from his father Hazrat Pir Sayyid Baqā Shāh Shaheed, who received the Qādri tariqah from Shaykh Sayyid Abdul-Qādir and received the Naqshbandi tariqah from Makhdūm Ismāīl Piryāloī (a famous saint of Sindh).
He was the chief deputy of his shaykh who regarded him as his spiritual successor. His shaykh loved him and regarded him in high esteem, and would often recommend his followers to his Suhbat. His shaykh would often ask him to lead the prayer, even if many scholars and other deputies of high qualities were present there. He had reached the highest stages of the spiritual path such as Ghaus and Mahboob.
His miracles and spiritual visions are many.
He passed away from this mortal world on 9th Rabi al-Awwal 1267 AH (13 January 1851). He used to celebrate the Mawlid of the Holy Prophet, peace be upon him, on every 12th of Rabi al-Awwal. This celebration, called Urs in Sindhi, is still arranged at his holy shrine.
His writings include:
- Majma’ul-Fuyūzāt (Persian), 6 volumes, malfūzāt of Hazrat Pir Muhammad Rāshid Rozay-Dhanī.
- Mahboobiyat-ul-Mahmoodiya. Description of the lessons of Sufism as taught by Pir Rozay-Dhani, based on the Qadri and Naqshbandi Sufi methods.
- Gulshan-e-Awliya (Persian). This book is lost now and only few translated excerpts survive.
- Collection of letters written to various disciples and deputies
- Collection of letters of his shaykh which he collected.
- His own Malfuzat, Sirāj-ul-Ashiqeen written by Khalifo Muhammad Malook Chandio
- His own Malfuzat, Kunūz-ul-Marifat, written by Khalīfā Gul Muhammad Hālāī. The original Persian transcript is lost and only the translation named Taufīq-ut-Tālibeen is available today.
Some of his deputies are following:
- Khalifa Gul Muhammad Hālāi, a scholar and poet of Sindhi language
- Khalifa Muhammad Malook Chāndio, Badin, Sindh
- Khalifa Sayyid Bāwā Miān, Bhuj, Kutch, Gujarat, India
- Khalifa Hājī Muhammad Roshan
- Khalifa Sayyid Sharf-ud-Dīn, Ahmadabad, India
Hazrat Khalifa Mahmood had thousands of disciples in near and far areas, mostly in southern Sindh, Gujarat and Maharashtra, up to Mumbai where he had many followers. He also had many disciples in the Arab world some of whom permanently migrated to his village to get his spiritual blessings.