Hadhrat Shāh Ra’ūf Ahmad Ra’fat Mujaddidī Naqshbandī quddas-Allāhu sirrahū was a descendant of Imām Rabbānī and a great Naqshbandī Sufi master in the thirteenth century AH.
His family chain is as follows:
- Shāh Ra’ūf Ahmad Mujaddidī, son of
- Shāh Shu’ūr Ahmad Mujaddidī, son of
- Shāh Muhammad Ashraf Mujaddidī, son of
- Shaykh Raziy ad-Dīn Mujaddidī, son of
- Shaykh Zain al-Abidīn Mujaddidī, son of
- Shaykh Muhammad Yahyā Fārūqī Mujaddidī, son of
- Imām Rabbānī Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindī Fārūqī Naqshbandī raziy-Allahu anhu.
This chain connects with the second caliph of Islam Sayyidunā Umar al-Fārūq radiy-Allāhu anhū.
Shāh Ra’ūf Ahmad was born on 14 Muharram 1201 AH (6 November 1786) in Mustafā-Abād alias Rāmpur, India.
After graduating from studies, he entered the service of a great walī and shaykh Hadhrat Shāh Dargāhī (d. 1226 AH), along with his maternal cousin Hadhrat Shāh Abū Sa’īd Mujaddidī (d. 1250 AH). He was trained by the shaykh in the Sufi Path and awarded deputyship and authorized in multiple orders.
After the demise of his first shaykh, he became disciple of Hadhrat Shāh Ghulām Alī Dihlawī Naqshbandī Mujaddidī, and was re-trained in the Sufi Path and reached the exalted spiritual stations of the Mujaddidī Order. He received deputyship from Shāh Ghulām Alī, and then established a new khāniqāh in Bhopal, India.
He was a literary person and wrote multiple books and treatises. He collected the letters of his master Shāh Ghulām Alī, which have been published and translated under the name Makātīb-i Sharīfa. His writings include:
- Arkān al-Islām (Urdu). A book of Hanafī Fiqh, published from Kanpur, India.
- Tafsīr Raūfī (Urdu). A concise and complete Tafsir of the Holy Qur’ān. Written from 1239 to 1248 AH. First published 1305H/1887 from Mumbai. A reprint was published recently. Available online on maktabah.org
- Jawāhir-i Alawiya, biography of his shaykh Shāh Ghulām Alī Dihlawī.
- Durr al-Ma’ārif (Farsi). Speeches of Shāh Ghulām Alī Dihlawī. Published and translated in Urdu and Turkish. Urdu
- Makātib-i Sharifa (Farsi). Letters of Shāh Ghulām Alī Dihlawī. First published in 1334/1916 from Madrās (Chinnai), India. Farsi, Urdu translation
- Maktūbāt Shāh Raūf Ahmad (Farsi). His letters published from Mujtabai Press, Lucknow in 1324H/1906 (124 pages).
- Many other short treatises, available as manuscripts in various libraries.
His date of demise is not agreed upon. His student Abd al-Ghaffūr Nassākh mentioned 1248 AH as his year of demise, and Abul Hasan Nadvī mentioned it to be 1266 AH.