Author Archives: Muhammed F. Bayraktar

Muraqabah and tawajjuh

Murāqabah and tawajjuh [1] In the pre-Mujaddidī Naqshbandī Order, tawajjuḥ (facing) and murāqabah (controlling) were nearly used as identical terms. ʿAlā al-Dīn al-ʿAṭṭār told his student ʿAbdullāh Imām-ī Iṣfahānī, that tawajjuh is an issue of the heart and that everyone … Continue reading

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Laṭāʾif [1]Sahl b.ʿAbdullāh at-Ṭūstarī (d.273/886 or 283/896), one of the first Ṣūfīs, relates that his maternal uncle taught him a litany while he was still a  young child and that, while continuing this litany, he felt in his heart and … Continue reading

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